Welcome to the Eagle Conservation Alliance

This is the homepage of the Eagle Conservation Alliance (ECA), a community of eagle experts around the globe who work to save the world's eagles.

There are more than 70 species of Eagles and they occour on every continent except Antarctica.

Unfortunately many eagle species are endangered. There are many causes for this, the most important being persecution and habitat destruction.

But there is also much hope as many people are working to protect these magnificent birds and the population of some eagles are recovering. Examples are the White-tailed Eagle of Europa and Asia or the Bald Eagle of North America.

Here you will find information about the work of the Eagle Conservation Alliance, like some of the projects our members are working on.
We also have a section with eagle news, an overview of the current status of the world's eagles and much more.

If you are looking for some information that you cannot find here, do not hesitate contacting us.

ECA Formation

From October 24th through 28th 2020, The "FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP on ex-situ Eagle MANAGEMENT AND Conservation" was hold at the National Parador of Oropesa, Toledo, Spain. The workshop was organized and hosted by the following Institutions:
Aquila Foundation, Fort Worth Zoo, Zoological Society of San Diego, CRC-Smithsonian´s National Zoo, Mimi metro Zoo, Los Angeles Zoo and the Center for Studies on Iberian Raptors, CERI-JCCM.
The aim was to agglutinate individuals and institutions with remarkable interest on ex-situ eagle conservation to identify shared problems, needs and timeline actions, as well as to brainstorm a joined initiative directed to promote the development of self sustaining eagle populations by implementing scientific knowledge, public awareness and by all means ex-situ and in-situ eagle conservation worldwide. To meet this need, 32 specialists representing 10 countries from four continents met in Oropesa, Spain (24-28 October 2006) to discuss issues associated with eagle conservation and to consider and implement a plan for action.

An early accomplishment was identifying the strengths of a consortium. This exercise recognized that a group of like-minded eagle specialists would:

panda zoo de beauval

There also was early and substantial discussion about the targeted focus of a potential consortium. There was absolute unity in declaring that the highest priority always was to secure free-living, viable eagle populations in the country of origin. However, given the worldwide loss in habitat and continually emerging threats to virtually all wild populations, there is essential value in captive populations. All genetically valuable wildlife requires attention, intensive management and conservation.

ECA would like to acknowlege the following institutions for their unvaluable help in supporting ECA work and iniciatives: The Zoological Society of San Diego, the SeaWorld/Busch Gardens Conservation Fund, the Fort Worth Zoo, the CRC Smithsonian's National Zoo and the Aquila Foundation.


The mission of the ECA is:

An alliance acting to conserve eagles worldwide.
The overall goal is to:

Ensure sustainable populations of eagles worldwide.
The goal will be accomplished by the ECA working to:

To ensure effectiveness and results on eagle conservation, a number of working groups generated to focus on critical high priority tasks.

Highlights from the working groups:

Eagle Conservation Projects

So as not to be just another talking shop on eagle conservation, we identified a limited number of activities that the ECA could undertake now to promote eagle conservation. Of course these activities may not be the absolute priorities for eagle conservation today, but they were things we thought we could accomplish with our existing membership and expertise and our limited funding. It was important for us to Do and not just talk about doing.

Initial projects:

Conservation Status of the Eagles of the World

For many eagle species we do not know exact population numbers or their current status in the wild. Only for very rare species like the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) or very well studied populations like those of the White-tailed Ealge(Haliaeetus albicilla) in many countries of Europe do we know the exact number of breeding pairs and the current population trends. The following list gives an overview of the current status of the world's 74 eagle species. The table shows the current status of the species as classified by the IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The population numbers are taken from the Global Raptor Information Network. The list was compiled by:

Jemima Parry-Jones MBE
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Little Orchard Farm
Herefordshire HR6 9AS

Phone ++ 44 (0) 1544 388777
Mobile 07871 749250
Email - jpj@icbp.org

Snake Eagles

Scientific Name English Name Estimated Population Size IUCN Status Trend Threats
Circaetus gallicus Short-toed Snake Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Habitat loss, shooting on migration
Circaetus beaudouini Beaudouin's Snake Eagle 1001 - 10000     Data deficient
Circaetus pectoralis Black breasted Snake Eagle 1000 - 10000 (RotW) LC   Data deficient
Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Data deficient
Circaetus fasciolatus Southern Banded Snake Eagle 1001 - 10000 NT UP Deforestation,human pressure
Circaetus cinerascens Western Banded Snake Eagle 1001 - 10000 LC   Deforestation of riverine forest
Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur Eagle 1001 - 10000 (RotW) LC   Habitat destruction, lack of carrion,nest disturbance,pesticides
Spilornis cheela Crested Serpent Eagle 100001 - 1000000 LC   None at this time
Spilornis elgini Andaman Serpent Eagle 1000 - 10000 (RotW) NT*   Deforestation
Spilornis minimus Central Nicobar Serpent Eagle 11-100 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis klossi Great Nicobar Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 NT*   Data deficient
Spilornis abbotti Simeulue Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis asturinus Nias Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis sipora Mentawai Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis natunensis Natuna Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis kinabaluensis Kinabalu Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 VU*   Deforestation
Spilornis baweanus Baweab Serpent Eagle 11-100 VU*   Data deficient
Spilornis rufipenctus Sulawesi Serpent Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Deforestation and disturbance
Spilornis holospilus Philippine Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 LC   Deforestation
Spilornis perplexus Ryukuyu Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 LC   Data deficient
Dryotriorchis spectabilis Congo Serpent Eagle 1001 - 10000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation
Eutriorchis astur Madagascar Serpent Eagle 101 - 1000 EN   Deforestation and fragmentation of habitat

Harpy Eagles

Scientific Name English Name Estimated Population Size IUCN Status Trend Threats
Morphnus guianensis Guiana Crested Eagle 1001 - 10000 (GRIN) NT   Deforestation, coal mining,shooting
Harpyhaliaetus solitarius Black Solitary Eagle 101 - 1000 (RotW) NT   Deforestation, disturbance, shooting
Harpyhaliaetus coronatus Crowned Solitary Eagle 2500 - 10,000 (RotW) EN   Habitat destruction,spread of agriculture
Harpia harpyja Harpy Eagle 10,000 - (GRIN) NT   Deforestation, disturbance, shooting
Harpyopsis novaeguineae New Guinea Eagle 1001 - 10000 (GRIN) VU   Deforestation and hunting for trophy feathers
Pithecophago jefferyi Philippine Eagle 101 - 1000 (GRIN) CR   Deforestation,human disturbance, shooting,taking as pets

Aquila Eagles

Scientific Name English Name Estimated Population Size IUCN Status Trend Threats
Ictinaetus malayensis Indian Black Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Deforestation
Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagle 30,000 - 50,000 (RotW) LC   Persecution, wetland drainage,hunting of migrants
Aquila hastata Indian Spotted Eagle ???????? VU   Data deficient
Aquila clanga Greater Spotted Eagle 1001 - 10,000 (RotW) VU DOWN Disturbance, wetland drainage,persecution, secondary poisoning
Aquila rapax African Tawny Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Secondary poisoning
Aquila vindhiana Indian Tawny Eagle 100001 - 1000000 LC   Diclofenac??
Aquila nipalensis Steppe Eagle 100001 - 1000000 LC   Loss of habitat through agriculture, powerlines, persecution, predation
Aquila adalberti Spanish Imperial Eagle 101 - 1000 VU UP Persecution, loss of prey base through myxomatosis secondary poisoning
Aquila heliaca Eastern Imperial Eagle 1001 - 10000 VU DOWN Shooting, Live pet trade, loss of prey base (susliks) through agriculture,deforestation
Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle 100001 - 1000000 LC   Human interferance, loss of nest trees, secondary poisoning
Aquila gurneyi Gurney's Eagle 1001 - 10000 NT UP Deforestation, disturbance
Aquila chysaetos Golden Eagle 100001 - 1000000 LC   Human disturbance,powerlines, shooting, poisoning
Aquila audax Wedge-tailed Eagle 100001 - 1000000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation, persecution
Aquila verreauxii Verreaux's Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Loss of prey species

Hawk Eagles

Scientific Name English Name Estimated Population Size IUCN Status Trend Threats
Hieraaetus fasciatus Bonelli's Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Persecution, powerlines,intensified agriculture, prey loss
Hieraatus spilogaster African Hawk Eagle 10000 - 300000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation
Hieraatus pennatus Booted Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Deforestation, human disturbance,persecution
Hieraatus morphnoides Little Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Habitat destruction locally
Hieraatus ayresii Ayres's Hawk Eagle 1001 - 10000 LC   Data deficient,some persecution
Hieraatus kienerii Rufous-bellied Eagle 1000 - 10000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation
Spizastur melanoleucus Black and white Hawk Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Deforestation
Lophaetus accipitalis Long-crested Eagle 10,000 - 100000 (RotW) LC   Probably none at this point - adaptable bird
Spizaetus africanus Cassin's Hawk Eagle 1000 - 10,000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation, human disturbance
Spizaetus cirrhatus Changeable Hawk Eagle 10001 - 100000 LC   Deforestation, human disturbance
Spizaetus nipalensis Mountain Hawk Eagle 1000 - 10,000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation
Spizaetus alboniger Blyth's Hawk Eagle 1001 - 10000 LC   Deforestation
Spizaetus bartelsi Javan Hawk Eagle 100 - 1000 (RotW) EN   Deforestation, felling for tea and coffee plantations,live pet trade
Spizaetus lanceolatus Sulawesi Hawk Eagle 1000 - 10,000 (RotW) LC   Deforestation and disturbance
Spizaetus philippensis Philippine Hawk Eagle 101 - 1000 VU   Massive and continuing deforestation
Spizaetus nanus Wallace's Hawk Eagle 100 - 1000 (RotW) VU   Deforestation, clearance for rubber and oil-pamn plantations, forest fires
Spizaetus tyrannus Black Hawk Eagle 100001 - 1000000 EN DOWN Deforestation
Spizaetus flores Floris Hawk Eagle 100 - 1000 LC?   Deforestation
Spizaetus ornatus Ornate Hawk Eagle 10,000 - 80,000 LC DOWN Deforestation
Stephanoatus coronatus Crowned Hawk Eagle 1000 - 10,000 (RotW) LC DOWN Deforestation, shooting, trapping, nest destruction
Oroaetus isidori Isidors Eagle 100 - 1000 (RotW) NT DOWN Deforestation

Fish Eagles

Scientific Name English Name Estimated Population Size IUCN Status Trend Threats
Haliaeetus leucogaster White bellied Sea Eagle 10001 - 100000 (GRIN) LC   Human disturbance,shooting poisoning, loss of habitat
Haliaeetus sanfordi Sandford's Sea Eagle 101 - 1000 (GRIN) VU   Deforestation, pollution, overfishing
Haliaeetus vocifer African Fish Eagle 100001 - 1000000 (GRIN) LC   Water pollution through pesticides
Haliaeetus vociferoides Madagascar Fish Eagle 101 - 1000 (GRIN) CR DOWN Hunting, trapping, nest robbing, deforestation
Haliaeetus leucoryphus Pallas's Fish Eagle 1001 - 10000 (GRIN) VU DOWN Drainage of wetlands,deforestation, industrial pollution
Haliaeetus albicilla White tailed Sea Eagle 10001 - 100000 (GRIN) LC   Persecution, habitat destruction, general pollution
Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald Eagle 100001 - 1000000 (GRIN) LC   Habitat loss, pollution, lead poisoning,human disturbance
Haliaeetus pelagicus Steller's Sea Eagle 1001 - 10000 (GRIN) VU DOWN Coastal development in petrochemical industry.HEP, logging
Ichthyophaga humilis Lesser Fishing Eagle 1001 - 10000 (GRIN) NT   Deforestation, silting of rivers,overfishing
Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Grey headed Fishing Eagle 10001 - 100000 (GRIN) NT   Deforestation, overfishing,disturbance, persecution

Captive Breeding of Eagles

The goal of eagle conservation must always be to have a self sustaining population of eagles in the wild. But for many eagle species, especially for those with very low population numbers like the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) captive breeding can be an important part of the conservation strategy.
Why captive breeding

  1. There are many good reasons for captive breeding. The most important ones are listed below.
  2. to understand the species
  3. to research the species
  4. to be able to utalise similar species techniques
  5. to maintain sustainable captive populations
  6. to produce birds for release to the wild (if circumstances allow)
  7. to research into incubation techniques
  8. to research into rearing techniques
  9. to be able to share information
  10. to utilise captive population for teaching
What is needed for captive breeding
  1. A piece of land that is safe, secure and quiet
  2. Preferably in a location with a climate not too dissimilar to the range state
  3. Well designed and built enclosures, taking into account the species and climate
  4. Good and safe food supply
  5. Good Veterinary experience close to hand
  6. Experienced staff in management, husbandry and captive breeding techniques
  7. Good quality birds
  8. Good incubation equipment
  9. Ideally, pairs of fostering birds
  10. Time
  11. Luck

Eagle Conservation

Eagles are charismatic, majestic and powerful -- characteristics that evoke public interest, awe and even veneration. Positioned at the top of the food chain, eagles play a crucial role in the balance and functioning of healthy ecosystems and as bioindicators of environmental change. For example, viability of populations is radically influenced by the quality of habitats and disruptions caused by pollution and toxicants. Eagles also have served as cultural and national emblems from ancient through contemporary times.
The worldwide situation for eagles is alarming, and indeed many wild populations of these species are in decline. Much of this loss is due directly to reductions in habitat and prey availability, direct persecution, poisoning and rapidly emerging diseases. Of the 74 currently recognized eagle species, 32 (43.2%) are listed as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN-World Conservation Union (2004 Red List).

There is a need to act – to share resources and knowledge to cooperatively understand and conserve the world’s eagles.

Contact us

If you want to contact us, please do not hesitate to send an email to info@eagleconservationalliance.org.

If you have comment's or questions about this website, please contact our webmaster: webmaster@eagleconservationalliance.org.